Can we prove the
existence of God? This essay presents the evidence of the different
arguments which, even if on their own do not provide a solid case, when
studied as a whole they do present what is considered by many to be
irrefutable evidence of the existence of God. The Cosmological Argument
provides evidence that God created the universe. The Design Argument
provides clues that show how the specificity of the design that emanates
from the creation evidences that it is the purpose of the mind of the
Creator. The Ontological Argument, for its part, provides the study of the
being, which being exists, which through epistemology gives us the ways man
has to know that Being, which Christians believe to be God. And fourthly,
the Moral Argument will provide conviction that human conscience has been
formed under universal moral rules under which man feels the real justice.
For each of the arguments, the atheist cosmovisions propose arguments
against them, but our conclusion will be to prove that they are not right.
Neither naturalism: from nothing, everything, nor is evolution biology’s
explanation: the human eye could have never evolved, neither atheism is as
solid as the evidence of God, nor relativism provides a base as soon as the
critical one experiences injustice in his life. Different religions, whether
they may be pantheists, polytheists or partly deist cannot convince us that
the world is eternal or that idols are gods, or that God, after creating,
does not intervene in daily life, since the universe continues to be in
balance and people living in the faith in Jesus Christ every day. To such
end, we will provide the extraordinary evidences of the compilation of the
Bible, the confirmation that the prophecies in the Bible are of fulfilment,
we will see how its message is the hope of the nations, and how the message
of the Gospel of salvation for each individual presents Jesus Christ as the
prophesized Messiah, the Son of God who became man to do justice in our
place and will return in His new creation.
This essay is
divided into four parts and a conclusion. This section includes the first
part. Following parts will be presented in due time.
1. ARGUMENTS IN
FAVOUR OF THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
- The Cosmological
Argument - The Design Argument – The Ontological Argument – The Moral
2. ANTI THEIST
- The Cosmological
Argument – The objection of naturalism. – The Design Argument – The
objection of Darwinism and Evolutionism. – The Ontological Argument –
Objection of atheism and agnosticism. - The Moral Argument – Objection of
relativism and nihilism. – Why does evil exist if God is good?
3. WHICH GOD EXISTS?
- Atheism, what if
there is no God? – Deism, what if God created the world but has not
intervened since then? – Pantheism, what if the world is God? – Panentheism,
what if the world is the body of God? – Finite Deism, what is God is not
almighty? – Polytheism, what if there are many Gods?
4.- THE GOD OF THE
- What if the Bible
is true? – Prophecies and miracles. - Jesus Christ is the only Way. -
What is Apologetics?
Originating from the
Greek word apology which means “defense” of something, in a legal sense it
is to defend with arguments in favour of what is being defended, in case of
Christianity it is Christian faith. In Christianity it would defend theories
such as: who is Jesus? Does God exist and which God? Is the Bible the word
of God and is it reliable? And it would provide data and evidence from
historical, archaeological and philosophical sources, amongst others. The
apologetical methodology includes: Classic Apologetic, Evidencialism and
Presuppositionalism, although some include Fideism, most see it as opposite.
A fifth method is also discussed, which would use the most relevant from
each method. The early fathers already used classic Christian apologetics to
refute the heresies in the Councils. The Classic one focuses in reason and
in the internal coherence of Christianity providing proofs that demonstrate
the lack of the same of its opponents, which are usually of philosophical
nature. The greatest classic apologists use the Cosmological and
Teleological arguments and support themselves on Paul’s address in Acts 17.
Justin Martyr, Thomas Aquinas, C.S. Lewis and Alister McGrath.
ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR
OF THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
Argument – or “kalam”
begins to exist, in our experience, must have a cause for its existence. The
universe started to exist, had a beginning, therefore it must have a cause
for it to exist. The study of infinites (potential or abstract and actual or
definite) concludes that the universe had a beginning – big bang? – actual
infinity does not exist. God exists outside creation, He does not depend on
anything, and He can create from nothing with will. The God of the Bible is
the best possible cause of the origin of the universe, and the Bible itself
declares that Jesus Christ created the universe: “All things were made by
him; and without him was not anything made that was made. John 1:3”
The Design Argument
exhibits design must have a designer. Universe exhibits design, therefore it
must have a designer. Observation of nature – DNA – and the universe
concludes that everything that is done has complexity, purpose, impossible
to have come by chance, it emanates from an intelligent mind, from an
architect of the universe and sustainer of life who keeps it functioning.
Professor Behe studied cells, its “engines” with purpose within a set of
internal “pieces” which make life possible. Just like a PC opening programs,
it was designed by intelligence. The God of the Bible is the best possible
“designer” of the universe: “... being understood by the things that are
It studies what
exists, and which being exists, through reason. The most perfect being has
perfect attributes. The necessary existence is a perfect attribute of the
most perfect being. Thus, it must have necessary existence; its existence
does not depend on anything or anybody, it has always existed and without
cause. Therefore that perfect being exists, necessarily. God is perfect in
every attribute, He has necessary existence. Anselm and Descartes state.
Through epistemology, it provides us with the ways which man has to know
that Being, which Christians believe to be God. The God of the Bible is the
“necessary and perfect existence” outside the universe: “In the beginning
was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. John 1:1”.
The Moral Argument
If objective moral
values (really) exist, then God exists. Moral objective values do exist. God
does exist. Morality is objective, truthful, universal, it applies
everywhere and every time, whether we accept it or not. The best explanation
of the existence of these objective moral principles is a supreme being who
gave the moral principles that, furthermore, are within our conscience.
Moral objective values exist. Conclusion: God exists. The argument is valid;
the conclusion is –necessarily– true. Atheist philosophers acknowledge the
argument as valid. The God of the Bible is the “absolute moral being”,
righteous judge, good and merciful who exists: “If ye know that he is
righteous, ye know that every one that doeth righteousness is born of him. 1